### Abstract

A scale-invariant model of statistical mechanics is applied to describe modified forms of zeroth, first, second, and third laws of classical thermodynamics. Following Helmholtz, the total thermal energy of the thermodynamic system is decomposed into free heat U and latent heat pV suggesting the modified form of the first law of thermodynamics Q=H=U+pV. Following Boltzmann, entropy of ideal gas is expressed in terms of the number of Heisenberg-Kramers virtual oscillators as S=4 Nk. Through introduction of stochastic definition of Planck and Boltzmann constants, Kelvin absolute temperature scale T (degree K) is identified as a length scale T (m) that is related to de Broglie wavelength of particle thermal oscillations. It is argued that rather than relating to the surface area of its horizon suggested by Bekenstein (1973, "Black Holes and Entropy," Phys. Rev. D, 7(8), pp. 2333-2346), entropy of black hole should be related to its total thermal energy, namely, its enthalpy leading to S=4Nk in exact agreement with the prediction of Major and Setter (2001, "Gravitational Statistical Mechanics: A Model," Classical Quantum Gravity, 18, pp. 5125-5142).

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | 032002 |

Journal | Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Transactions of the ASME |

Volume | 138 |

Issue number | 3 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - May 1 2016 |

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Mechanical Engineering
- Geochemistry and Petrology