Purpose Despite the increased use of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy, open conversion may occur due to surgical complications, surgeon inexperience or failure to progress. We used nationally representative data to quantify the impact of open conversion compared to nonconverted minimally invasive radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy, and identify predictors of open conversion.
Materials and Methods Years 2004 to 2010 of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were queried for patients who underwent radical prostatectomy to analyze the association of open conversion during minimally invasive radical prostatectomy with Clavien complications. Multivariate regression models yielded significant predictors of open conversion.
Results From 2004 to 2010, 134,398 (95% CI 111,509-157,287) minimally invasive radical prostatectomies were performed with a 1.8% (95% CI 1.4-2.1) open conversion rate, translating to 2,360 (95% CI 2,001-2,720) conversions. Open conversion cases had a longer length of stay (4.17 vs 1.71 days, p <0.001) and higher hospital charges ($51,049 vs $37,418, p <0.001) than nonconverted cases. Of open conversion cases 45.2% experienced a complication vs 7.2% and 12.9% of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy cases, respectively (p <0.001). After adjusting for age and comorbidities, open conversion was associated with significantly increased odds of a Clavien grade 1, 2, 3 and 4 complication compared to nonconverted minimally invasive radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy (OR range 2.913 to 15.670, p <0.001). Significant multivariate predictors of open conversion were obesity (OR 1.916), adhesions (OR 3.060), anemia (OR 5.692) and surgeon volume for minimally invasive radical prostatectomy less than 25 cases per year (OR 7.376) (all p <0.01).
Conclusions Open conversion during minimally invasive radical prostatectomy is associated with a higher than expected increase in complications compared to open radical prostatectomy and minimally invasive radical prostatectomy after adjusting for age and comorbidities. External validation of predictors of open conversion may prove useful in minimizing open conversion during minimally invasive radical prostatectomy.
- conversion to open surgery
- prostatic neoplasms
ASJC Scopus subject areas