Open mouth-maximal isometric press: Development and norms for clinical swallowing evaluations and treatment

James A. Curtis*, Jonelyn Langenstein, Michelle S. Troche, Joey Laus, Sarah L. Schneider

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose: The aims of this study were to (a) describe the development and utility of the Open Mouth-Maximal Isometric Press (OM-MIP), a tool designed for the quantitative assessment of suprahyoid–infrahyoid muscle strength; (b) examine the effects of age and sex on the OM-MIP; and (c) establish age-and sex-based OM-MIP norms. Method: Two hundred sixteen healthy male and female volunteers were recruited. Participants performed the OM-MIP, and the maximum of 3 trials that were within 10% of each other was recorded. Rest between each trial was allowed to avoid fatigue. Multiple regression examined the influence of age and sex on the OM-MIP. Descriptive statistics outlined normative OM-MIP values for young adult (aged 18–39 years), middle-aged adult (aged 40–59 years), old adult (aged 60–79 years), and very old adult (aged ≥ 80 years) men and women. Two-way analysis of variance determined if normative data differed significantly between the age and sex groups. Results: Age and sex significantly influenced the OM-MIP, although no significant interaction effect was identified. Women had lower mean OM-MIPs when compared with men (p < .0005), and very old adults had lower mean OM-MIPs when compared with young ( p = .001), middle-aged (p < .0005), and old ( p = .013) adults. Conclusions: This study establishes age-and sex-based OM-MIP norms and outlines its potential utility during clinical swallowing evaluations and treatment. By providing these norms, clinicians can begin to quantitatively measure suprahyoid and infrahyoid strength, individualize resistance training programs to patients’ OM-MIP 1 repetition maximum, and track strength changes over time in response to therapeutic interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)148-154
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican journal of speech-language pathology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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