Opportunities, challenges, and future directions for simulation modeling the effects of structural racism on cancer mortality in the United States: a scoping review

Jinani Jayasekera, Safa El Kefi, Jessica R. Fernandez, Kaitlyn M. Wojcik, Jennifer M.P. Woo, Adaora Ezeani, Jennifer L. Ish, Manami Bhattacharya, Kemi Ogunsina, Che Jung Chang, Camryn M. Cohen, Stephanie Ponce, Dalya Kamil, Julia Zhang, Randy Le, Amrita L. Ramanathan, Gisela Butera, Christina Chapman, Shakira J. Grant, Marquita W. Lewis-ThamesChiranjeev Dash, Traci N. Bethea, Allana T. Forde

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

PURPOSE: Structural racism could contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in cancer mortality via its broad effects on housing, economic opportunities, and health care. However, there has been limited focus on incorporating structural racism into simulation models designed to identify practice and policy strategies to support health equity. We reviewed studies evaluating structural racism and cancer mortality disparities to highlight opportunities, challenges, and future directions to capture this broad concept in simulation modeling research. METHODS: We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-Scoping Review Extension guidelines. Articles published between 2018 and 2023 were searched including terms related to race, ethnicity, cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, and structural racism. We included studies evaluating the effects of structural racism on racial and ethnic disparities in cancer mortality in the United States. RESULTS: A total of 8345 articles were identified, and 183 articles were included. Studies used different measures, data sources, and methods. For example, in 20 studies, racial residential segregation, one component of structural racism, was measured by indices of dissimilarity, concentration at the extremes, redlining, or isolation. Data sources included cancer registries, claims, or institutional data linked to area-level metrics from the US census or historical mortgage data. Segregation was associated with worse survival. Nine studies were location specific, and the segregation measures were developed for Black, Hispanic, and White residents. CONCLUSIONS: A range of measures and data sources are available to capture the effects of structural racism. We provide a set of recommendations for best practices for modelers to consider when incorporating the effects of structural racism into simulation models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-245
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
Volume2023
Issue number62
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 8 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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