Purpose To quantify vessel tortuosity and fractal dimension of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) of the macula in different stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR), and following panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods 75 eyes of 75 subjects were divided into five groups; healthy controls, diabetes with no clinical DR, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and patients who received PRP for PDR (PDR+PRP).For vessel tortuosity, SCP slabs from 3x3 mm macular OCTA scans were processed using imageJ (NIH, USA), where large perifoveal vessels were traced and their length was measured with tortuosity calculated as the ratio between the actual length and the straight Euclidean length. For fractal dimension, SCP slabs were processed and imported to Fractalyse (ThéMA, France), where box-counting analyses produced fractal dimension values. Results We found a significant difference in vessel tortuosity and fractal dimension between the five groups (one-way ANOVA, p < 0.001both). NPDR and PDR had significantly more tortuous vessels and lower fractal dimension compared to healthy controls (Tukey HSD: p = 0.02, 0.015,0.015 and <0.001, respectively). Fractal dimension was also significantly lower in NPDR and PDR compared to eyes with no clinical DR (p <0.001 both), and in PDR compared to NPDR (p = 0.014). Following PRP, vessel tortuosity was significantly lower and fractal dimension was higher in PDR+PRP compared to PDR (p = 0.001 and 0.031, respectively). Conclusions We used macular OCTA scans to demonstrate significantly higher perifoveal large vessel tortuosity, and lower fractal dimension in NPDR and PDR compared to healthy controls. Vessel tortuosity shows more dramatic normalization than fractal dimension and could be explored as a sensitive marker for successful PRP.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)