Majority of previous studies showed no association between a single health behavior and arterial stiffness, but the benefit of simultaneously having multiple healthy behaviors (optimal lifestyle) on the progression of arterial stiffness is unknown. Among 2810 individuals (age 60.0 ± 9.4, 46.5% male), optimal lifestyle marker (yes/no) on four health behaviors (ie, BMI < 25 kg/m2, never or former smoker, never or moderate drinker, exercised > 500 METS min/week) across four visits (≈ 5 years) were summed to create an optimal lifestyle score. Carotid arterial stiffness was measured using distensibility coefficient (DC) and Young's elastic modulus (YEM) at visit 1 and after a mean of 9.5 years (visit 5). The association of optimal lifestyle with 10-year percent change in DC and YEM was assessed using multiple linear regression. DC decreased by 5.3% and YEM increased by 24.4% over 10 years. Mean optimal lifestyle score was 9.4 ± 3.1 (range: 0–16). Individuals in quintiles 2–5 of optimal lifestyle score compared to quintile 1 (with the least optimal lifestyle score) did not show slower deceleration of DC [Q2, −0.3% (95% CI: −6.0, 5.4); Q3, −0.01% (−4.5, 4.5); Q4, −0.6% (−5.2, 3.9); Q5, −0.4% (−5.3, 4.4)], trend p-value =.82] or slower progression of YEM [Q2, 0.1% (−7.1, 7.3); Q3, −0.8% (−8.0, 6.5); Q4, 4.5% (−2.3, 11.3); Q5, −0.2% (−8.3, 7.9)], trend p-value =.49] after adjusting for risk factors. The association remained non-significant when stratified by categories of age, sex, race, BP control, and diabetes. Our findings indicate that optimal score on multiple health behaviors may not independently slow arterial stiffness progression.
- arterial stiffness
- body mass index
- healthy lifestyle
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine