Optimization of saturation-recovery dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI acquisition protocol: monte carlo simulation approach demonstrated with gadolinium MR renography

Jeff L. Zhang*, Chris C. Conlin, Kristi Carlston, Luke Xie, Daniel Kim, Glen Morrell, Kathryn Morton, Vivian S. Lee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is widely used for the measurement of tissue perfusion and to assess organ function. MR renography, which is acquired using a DCE sequence, can measure renal perfusion, filtration and concentrating ability. Optimization of the DCE acquisition protocol is important for the minimization of the error propagation from the acquired signals to the estimated parameters, thus improving the precision of the parameters. Critical to the optimization of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted protocols is the balance of the T1-shortening effect across the range of gadolinium (Gd) contrast concentration in the tissue of interest. In this study, we demonstrate a Monte Carlo simulation approach for the optimization of DCE MRI, in which a saturation-recovery T1-weighted gradient echo sequence is simulated and the impact of injected dose (D) and time delay (TD, for saturation recovery) is tested. The results show that high D and/or high TD cause saturation of the peak arterial signals and lead to an overestimation of renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, the use of low TD (e.g. 100 ms) and low D leads to similar errors in RPF and GFR, because of the Rician bias in the pre-contrast arterial signals. Our patient study including 22 human subjects compared TD values of 100 and 300 ms after the injection of 4 mL of Gd contrast for MR renography. At TD = 100 ms, we computed an RPF value of 157.2 ± 51.7 mL/min and a GFR of 33.3 ± 11.6 mL/min. These results were all significantly higher than the parameter estimates at TD = 300 ms: RPF = 143.4 ± 48.8 mL/min (p = 0.0006) and GFR = 30.2 ± 11.5 mL/min (p = 0.0015). In conclusion, appropriate optimization of the DCE MRI protocol using simulation can effectively improve the precision and, potentially, the accuracy of the measured parameters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)969-977
Number of pages9
JournalNMR in Biomedicine
Volume29
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016

Keywords

  • MR renography
  • dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging
  • glomerular filtration rate
  • renal plasma flow
  • tracer kinetic modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy

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