Background and Aims: Many children with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) receive oral vancomycin therapy (OVT) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). There is a paucity of data on whether these medications improve outcomes. Approach and Results: We analyzed retrospective data from the Pediatric PSC Consortium. Children treated with OVT were matched 1:1:1 to those treated with UDCA or managed with observation (no treatment) based on the closest propensity score, ensuring similar baseline characteristics. Two hundred sixty-four patients (88 each with OVT, UDCA, or observation) had matching propensity scores and were similar in demographics, phenotype, immunosuppression, baseline biochemistry, and hepatic fibrosis. After 1 year in an intention-to-treat analysis, all outcome metrics were similar regardless of treatment group. In OVT, UDCA, and untreated groups, respectively: Gamma-glutamyltransferase normalized in 53%, 49%, and 52% (P = not significant [NS]), liver fibrosis stage was improved in 20%, 13%, and 18% and worsened in 11%, 29%, and 18% (P = NS), and the 5-year probability of liver transplant listing was 21%, 10%, and 12% (P = NS). Favorable outcome was associated with having a mild phenotype of PSC and minimal hepatic fibrosis. Conclusions: We presented the largest-ever description of outcomes on OVT in PSC and compared them to carefully matched patients on UDCA or no therapy. Neither OVT nor UDCA showed improvement in outcomes compared to a strategy of observation. Patients progressed to end-stage liver disease at similar rates. Spontaneous normalization of biochemistry is common in children receiving no therapy, particularly in the majority of children with a mild phenotype and an early stage of disease. Placebo-controlled treatment trials are needed to identify effective treatments for pediatric PSC.
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