Both congenital and acquired orthopaedic deformities are common in patients with spina bifida. Examples of congenital deformities, which are present at birth, include clubfoot and vertical talus. Acquired developmental deformities are related to the level of neurologic involvement and include calcaneus and cavovarus. Orthopaedic deformities may also result from postoperative tethered cord syndrome. The previously published Part I reviewed the overall orthopaedic care of a patient with spina bifida, with a focused review of hip, knee, and rotational deformities. This paper will cover foot and ankle deformities associated with spina bifida, including clubfoot, equinus, vertical talus, calcaneus and calcaneovalgus, ankle and hindfoot valgus, and cavovarus. In addition, this paper will address the issues surrounding skin breakdown in patients with spina bifida.
- Ankle deformity
- Foot deformity
- Spina bifida
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine