Outcomes and Predictors of Perinatal Mortality in Fetuses with Ebstein Anomaly or Tricuspid Valve Dysplasia in the Current Era: A Multicenter Study

Lindsay R. Freud*, Maria C. Escobar-Diaz, Brian T. Kalish, Rukmini Komarlu, Michael D. Puchalski, Edgar T. Jaeggi, Anita L. Szwast, Grace Freire, Stéphanie M. Levasseur, Ann Kavanaugh-Mchugh, Erik C. Michelfelder, Anita J. Moon-Grady, Mary T. Donofrio, Lisa W. Howley, Elif Seda Selamet Tierney, Bettina F. Cuneo, Shaine A. Morris, Jay D. Pruetz, Mary E. Van Der Velde, John P. KovalchinCatherine M. Ikemba, Margaret M. Vernon, Cyrus Samai, Gary M. Satou, Nina L. Gotteiner, Colin K. Phoon, Norman H. Silverman, Doff B. McElhinney, Wayne Tworetzky

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Scopus citations


Background-Ebstein anomaly and tricuspid valve dysplasia are rare congenital tricuspid valve malformations associated with high perinatal mortality. The literature consists of small, single-center case series spanning several decades. We performed a multicenter study to assess the outcomes and factors associated with mortality after fetal diagnosis in the current era. Methods and Results-Fetuses diagnosed with Ebstein anomaly and tricuspid valve dysplasia from 2005 to 2011 were included from 23 centers. The primary outcome was perinatal mortality, defined as fetal demise or death before neonatal discharge. Of 243 fetuses diagnosed at a mean gestational age of 27±6 weeks, there were 11 lost to follow-up (5%), 15 terminations (6%), and 41 demises (17%). In the live-born cohort of 176 live-born patients, 56 (32%) died before discharge, yielding an overall perinatal mortality of 45%. Independent predictors of mortality at the time of diagnosis were gestational age <32 weeks (odds ratio, 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.5-21.0; P<0.001), tricuspid valve annulus diameter z-score (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.5; P<0.001), pulmonary regurgitation (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-6.2; P<0.001), and a pericardial effusion (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-6.0; P=0.04). Nonsurvivors were more likely to have pulmonary regurgitation at any gestational age (61% versus 34%; P<0.001), and lower gestational age and weight at birth (35 versus 37 weeks; 2.5 versus 3.0 kg; both P<0.001). Conclusion-In this large, contemporary series of fetuses with Ebstein anomaly and tricuspid valve dysplasia, perinatal mortality remained high. Fetuses with pulmonary regurgitation, indicating circular shunt physiology, are a high-risk cohort and may benefit from more innovative therapeutic approaches to improve survival.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)481-489
Number of pages9
Issue number6
StatePublished - Aug 11 2015


  • Ebstein anomaly
  • echocardiography
  • heart defects, congenital
  • mortality
  • tricuspid valve insufficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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