Outpatient Worsening Among Patients With Mildly Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure in the DELIVER Trial

Safia Chatur, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Brian L. Claggett, Jonathan W. Cunningham, Kieran F. Docherty, Akshay S. Desai, Pardeep S. Jhund, Rudolf A. De Boer, Adrian F. Hernandez, Silvio E. Inzucchi, Mikhail N. Kosiborod, Carolyn S.P. Lam, Felipe A. Martinez, Sanjiv J. Shah, Magnus Petersson, Anna Maria Langkilde, John J.V. McMurray, Scott D. Solomon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is recognized as a sentinel event in the disease trajectory of patients with heart failure (HF), but not all patients experiencing clinical decompensation are ultimately hospitalized. Outpatient intensification of diuretics is common in response to symptoms of worsening HF, yet its prognostic and clinical relevance, specifically for patients with HF with mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction, is uncertain. METHODS: In this prespecified analysis of the DELIVER trial (Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure), we assessed the association between various nonfatal worsening HF events (those requiring hospitalization, urgent outpatient visits requiring intravenous HF therapies, and outpatient oral diuretic intensification) and rates of subsequent mortality. We further examined the treatment effect of dapagliflozin on an expanded composite end point of cardiovascular death, HF hospitalization, urgent HF visit, or outpatient oral diuretic intensification. RESULTS: In DELIVER, 4532 (72%) patients experienced no worsening HF event, whereas 789 (13%) had outpatient oral diuretic intensification, 86 (1%) required an urgent HF visit, 585 (9%) had an HF hospitalization, and 271 (4%) died of cardiovascular causes as a first presentation. Patients with a first presentation manifesting as outpatient oral diuretic intensification experienced rates of subsequent mortality that were higher (10 [8-12] per 100 patient-years) than those without a worsening HF event (4 [3-4] per 100 patient-years) but similar to rates of subsequent death after an urgent HF visit (10 [6-18] per 100 patient-years). Patients with an HF hospitalization as a first presentation of worsening HF had the highest rates of subsequent death (35 [31-40] per 100 patient-years). The addition of outpatient diuretic intensification to the adjudicated DELIVER primary end point (cardiovascular death, HF hospitalization, or urgent HF visit) increased the overall number of patients experiencing an event from 1122 to 1731 (a 54% increase). Dapagliflozin reduced the need for outpatient diuretic intensification alone (hazard ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.64-0.82]) and when analyzed as a part of an expanded composite end point of worsening HF or cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.69-0.84]). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HF with mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction, worsening HF requiring oral diuretic intensification in ambulatory care was frequent, adversely prognostic, and significantly reduced by dapagliflozin. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03619213.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1735-1745
Number of pages11
Issue number22
StatePublished - Nov 28 2023


  • disease progression
  • heart failure
  • heart failure, diastolic
  • heart failure, systolic
  • hospitalization
  • sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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