Overcoming immunosuppression in bone metastases

Zachary Z. Reinstein, Sahithi Pamarthy, Vinay Sagar, Ricardo Costa, Sarki A. Abdulkadir, Francis J. Giles, Benedito A. Carneiro*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Bone metastases are present in up to 70% of advanced prostate and breast cancers and occur at significant rates in a variety of other cancers. Bone metastases can be associated with significant morbidity. The establishment of bone metastasis activates several immunosuppressive mechanisms. Hence, understanding the tumor-bone microenvironment is crucial to inform the development of novel therapies. This review describes the current standard of care for patients with bone metastatic disease and novel treatment options targeting the microenvironment. Treatments reviewed include immunotherapies, cryoablation, and targeted therapies. Combinatorial treatment strategies including targeted therapies and immunotherapies show promise in pre-clinical and clinical studies to overcome the suppressive environment and improve treatment of bone metastases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)114-127
Number of pages14
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
StatePublished - Sep 2017


  • Bone metastases
  • bone metastatic disease
  • immunosuppression
  • skeletal-related events

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology


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