Overcoming Short-Circuit in Lead-Free CH3NH3SnI3 Perovskite Solar Cells via Kinetically Controlled Gas-Solid Reaction Film Fabrication Process

Takamichi Yokoyama, Duyen H. Cao, Constantinos C. Stoumpos, Tze Bin Song, Yoshiharu Sato, Shinji Aramaki, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

195 Scopus citations


The development of Sn-based perovskite solar cells has been challenging because devices often show short-circuit behavior due to poor morphologies and undesired electrical properties of the thin films. A low-temperature vapor-assisted solution process (LT-VASP) has been employed as a novel kinetically controlled gas-solid reaction film fabrication method to prepare lead-free CH3NH3SnI3 thin films. We show that the solid SnI2 substrate temperature is the key parameter in achieving perovskite films with high surface coverage and excellent uniformity. The resulting high-quality CH3NH3SnI3 films allow the successful fabrication of solar cells with drastically improved reproducibility, reaching an efficiency of 1.86%. Furthermore, our Kelvin probe studies show the VASP films have a doping level lower than that of films prepared from the conventional one-step method, effectively lowering the film conductivity. Above all, with (LT)-VASP, the short-circuit behavior often obtained from the conventional one-step-fabricated Sn-based perovskite devices has been overcome. This study facilitates the path to more successful Sn-perovskite photovoltaic research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)776-782
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 3 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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