Objectives To examine the topographical correlation between ellipsoid zone loss and telangiectasia in the deep capillary plexus in patients with macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel). Methods 38 eyes (20 subjects) diagnosed with MacTel were imaged with OCTA between March 2016 and June 2019 in this single center, cross-sectional observational study. The en face OCTA and OCT were evaluated for areas of deep capillary plexus telangiectasia and ellipsoid zone loss, respectively, and their outlines were superimposed to study their overlap (mm2). The primary outcome was percentage of overlap and its relationship to MacTel stage. Secondary outcomes included the relationship between neovascularization and hyperreflective foci as well as correlations between ellipsoid zone loss, deep capillary plexus telangiectasia and visual acuity. Results In nonproliferative MacTel stage, ellipsoid zone loss was localized to margins of telangiectatic areas (mean overlap = 15.2%). In proliferative stages, ellipsoid zone loss showed a higher degree of overlap with telangiectatic areas (mean overlap = 62.8%). Overlap increased with advancing MacTel stages, with an overall average of 45.3%. Overlap correlated highly with ellipsoid zone loss (r = 0.831; p<0.0001). Telangiectasia was present in all 38 eyes (range: 0.08mm2-0.99mm2), while ellipsoid zone loss was absent in 6 (range: 0.00-3.32mm2). Visual acuity correlated most strongly with ellipsoid zone loss (r = 0.569; p = 0.0002), followed by overlap (r = 0.544; p = 0.0004), and finally, telangiectasia (r = 0.404; p<0.0118). Presence of hyperreflective foci on OCT correlated with the presence and intraretinal location of neovascularization. Conclusions Ellipsoid zone loss occurs at the margins of deep capillary plexus telangiectasia in nonproliferative MacTel, with progressively increasing overlap as MacTel advances, peaking in proliferative disease. Deep capillary plexus telangiectasia and its overlap with ellipsoid zone loss are two promising markers of nonproliferative MacTel, while hyper-reflective foci are markers for proliferative MacTel.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)