Oxidation State Discrimination in the Atomic Layer Deposition of Vanadium Oxides

Matthew S. Weimer, In Soo Kim, Peijun Guo, Richard D. Schaller, Alex B.F. Martinson, Adam S. Hock*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


We describe the use of a vanadium 3+ precursor for atomic layer deposition (ALD) of thin films that span the common oxidation states of vanadium oxides. Self-limiting surface synthesis of V2O3, VO2, and V2O5 are realized through four distinct reaction mechanisms accessed via judicious choice of oxygen ALD partners. In situ quartz crystal microbalance and quadrupole mass spectrometry were used to study the reaction mechanism of the vanadium precursor with O3, H2O2, H2O/O2, and H2O2/H2. A clear distinction between nonoxidative protic ligand exchange and metal oxidation is demonstrated through sequential surface reactions with different nonmetal precursors. This synergistic effect provides greater control of the resultant metal species in the film, as well as reactive surface species during growth. In an extension of this approach, we introduce oxidation state control through reducing equivalents of H2 gas. When H2 is dosed after H2O2 during growth, amorphous films of VO2 are deposited that are readily crystallized with a low temperature anneal. These VO2 films show a temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy response in the expected range and consistent with the well-known phase-change behavior of VO2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6238-6244
Number of pages7
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 8 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry


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