Paired-line hybrid transit design considering spatial heterogeneity

Sida Luo, Yu (Marco) Nie*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


This study attempts to incorporate spatial heterogeneity into the optimal design of paired-line hybrid transit systems, which aims to strike a better balance between accessibility and efficiency by leveraging the flexibility of a demand adaptive service. A simple trip production and distribution model is introduced to differentiate the central business district (CBD) of a city from its periphery. To cope with the heterogeneous demand pattern, the transit system is also configured differently inside and outside the CBD, for both its fixed route and demand adaptive services. Allowing the supply heterogeneity complicates transit users’ route choice modeling considerably. As a result, user costs must be estimated separately for six subregions that constitute the feasible set of the fixed route headway. Each subregion corresponds to a unique route choice behavior, hence leading to a distinctive design model that is formulated as a mixed integer program and solved by a commercial solver. Results of numerical experiments show that concentrating demand in the CBD significantly reduces the average system cost, and this benefit increases as the average demand density becomes larger. Also, recognizing demand heterogeneity and responding to it with a tailored design can be highly beneficial. However, this benefit diminishes as the average demand density increases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)320-339
Number of pages20
JournalTransportation Research Part B: Methodological
StatePublished - Feb 2020


  • Demand adaptive transit
  • Paired-line hybrid system
  • Route choice
  • Spatial heterogeneity
  • Transit network design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation


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