Paraconsistent logics as a formalism for reasoning about inconsistent knowledge bases

Newton C.A. da Costa*, V. S. Subrahmanian

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Inconsistency is a natural phenomenon of the world. Thus, we need methods to reason about systems that may be inconsistent. Paraconsistent logics are a family of logics proposed initially by da Costa [3, 4, 5, 6] as a framework for reasoning in the presence of inconsistency. In this paper, we discuss various alternative schemes for paraconsistent reasoning and show how it applies to the design of large knowledge bases and databases in expert systems where incosistent information may often be present.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)167-174
Number of pages8
JournalArtificial Intelligence In Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1989
Externally publishedYes


  • belief
  • consistency checking
  • disbelief
  • inconsistent knowledge bases
  • knowledge bases
  • medical expert systems
  • paraconsistent logic programming
  • paraconsistent logics
  • uncertainty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Artificial Intelligence


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