Parallel MRI with extended and averaged GRAPPA kernels (PEAK-GRAPPA): Optimized spatiotemporal dynamic imaging

Bernd Jung*, Peter Ullmann, Matthias Honal, Simon Bauer, Jürgen Hennig, Michael Markl

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


Purpose: To evaluate an optimized k-t-space related reconstruction method for dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a method called PEAK-GRAPPA (Parallel MRI with Extended and Averaged GRAPPA Kernels) is presented which is based on an extended spatiotemporal GRAPPA kernel in combination with temporal averaging of coil weights. Materials and Methods: The PEAK-GRAPPA kernel consists of a uniform geometry with several spatial and temporal source points from acquired k-space lines and several target points from missing k-space lines. In order to improve the quality of coil weight estimation sets of coil weights are averaged over the temporal dimension. Results: The kernel geometry leads to strongly decreased reconstruction times compared to the recently introduced k-t-GRAPPA using different kernel geometries with only one target point per kernel to fit. Improved results were obtained in terms of the root mean square error and the signal-to-noise ratio as demonstrated by in vivo cardiac imaging. Conclusion: Using a uniform kernel geometry for weight estimation with the properties of uncorrelated noise of different acquired timeframes, optimized results were achieved in terms of error level, signal-to-noise ratio, and reconstruction time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1226-1232
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2008


  • Dynamic imaging
  • Parallel MRI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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