Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and psychometric properties of a measure

Courtney Benjamin Wolk*, Nicole E. Caporino, Susanna McQuarrie, Cara A. Settipani, Jennifer L. Podell, Sarah Crawley, Rinad S. Beidas, Philip C. Kendall

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child's anxiety, parents' perceived ability to cope with their child's anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents' understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child's anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N = 192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach's alpha ranging from.67 to.83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children's anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n = 83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-78
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Anxiety Disorders
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016


  • Anxiety
  • Assessment
  • Child
  • Measure development
  • Parent

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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