Parental perceptions of emotional and behavioral difficulties among prepubertal gender-nonconforming children.

Diane Chen*, Marco A. Hidalgo, Robert Garofalo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to better understand parents' perceptions of how, if at all, their transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGNC) children exhibited common childhood emotional and behavioral concerns in relation to gender nonconformity/gender dysphoria (GD), and to identify ways in which evidence-based interventions (EBI) targeting emotional and behavioral concerns could be adapted to best serve TGNC children. Qualitative data were gathered from a targeted focus group activity with 40 parents (25 mothers, 15 fathers) of 24 TGNC children ages 4-11 years old. Parents of TGNC children described how 4 prespecified domains of emotional and behavioral problems (i.e., oppositional behavior, anger, sadness, and fears/worries) are characterized in the context of gender-nonconformity/GD. Parents also identified precipitants of these problems. Overall study findings indicate there is a role for EBI adaptation as parents identified many different examples of emotional and behavioral challenges emerging in unique and nuanced ways in TGNC children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)342-352
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2017


  • Gender-nonconforming children
  • focus group
  • gender diverse children
  • qualitative research
  • transgender children

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Applied Psychology


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