Importance: A substantial number of patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer are at risk formetastatic progression after primary treatment. Better biomarkers are needed to identify patients at the highest risk to guide therapy intensification. Objective: To create a DNA damage and repair (DDR) pathway profilingmethod for use as a prognostic signature biomarker in high-risk prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort of 1090 patients with high-risk prostate cancer who underwent prostatectomy and were treated at 3 different academic institutions were divided into a training cohort (n = 545) and 3 pooled validation cohorts (n = 232, 130, and 183) assembled for case-control or case-cohort studies. Profiling of 9 DDR pathways using 17 gene sets for GSEA (Gene Set Enrichment Analysis) of high-density microarray gene expression data from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostatectomy samples with median 10.3 years follow-up was performed. Prognostic signature development from DDR pathway profiles was studied, and DDR pathway gene mutation in published cohorts was analyzed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Biochemical recurrence-free, metastasis-free, and overall survival. Results: Across the training cohort and pooled validation cohorts, 1090 men were studied; mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 65.3 (6.4) years. We found that there are distinct clusters of DDR pathways within the cohort, and DDR pathway enrichment is only weakly correlated with clinical variables such as age (Spearman ρ [ρ], range, -0.07 to 0.24), Gleason score (ρ, range, 0.03 to 0.20), prostate-specific antigen level (ρ, range, -0.07 to 0.10), while 13 of 17 DDR gene sets are strongly correlated with androgen receptor pathway enrichment (ρ, range, 0.33 to 0.82). In published cohorts, DDR pathway genes are rarely mutated. A DDR pathway profile prognostic signature built in the training cohort was significantly associated with biochemical recurrence-free,metastasis-free, and overall survival in the pooled validation cohorts independent of standard clinicopathological variables. The prognostic performance of the signature formetastasis-free survival appears to be stronger in the younger patients (HR, 1.67; 95%CI, 1.12-2.50) than in the older patients (HR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.29-2.07) on multivariate Cox analysis. Conclusions and Relevance: DNA damage and repair pathway profiling revealed patient-level variations and the DDR pathways are rarely affected by mutation. A DDR pathway signature showed strong prognostic performance with the long-term outcomes of metastasis-free and overall survival that may be useful for risk stratification of high-risk prostate cancer patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research