Patients With Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Have Greater Healthcare Resource Utilization After Liver Transplantation

Multi-Organ Dysfunction and Evaluation for Liver Transplantation (MODEL) Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background & Aims: Although liver transplantation (LT) has been demonstrated to provide survival benefit for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), data are lacking regarding resource utilization for this population after LT. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 10 centers in North America of patients transplanted between 2018 and 2019. ACLF was identified by using the European Association for the Study of the Liver-Chronic Liver Failure criteria. Results: We studied 318 patients of whom 106 patients (33.3%) had no ACLF, 61 (19.1%) had ACLF-1, 74 (23.2%) had ACLF-2, and 77 (24.2%) had ACLF-3 at transplantation. Healthcare resource utilization after LT was greater among recipients with ACLF compared with patients without ACLF regarding median post-LT length of hospital stay (LOS) (P < .001), length of post-LT dialysis (P < .001), discharge to a rehabilitation center (P < .001), and 30-day readmission rates (P = .042). Multivariable negative binomial regression analysis demonstrated a significantly longer LOS for patients with ACLF-1 (1.9 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82–7.51), ACLF-2 (6.7 days; 95% CI, 2.5–24.3), and ACLF-3 (19.3 days; 95% CI, 1.2–39.7), compared with recipients without ACLF. Presence of ACLF-3 at LT was also associated with longer length of dialysis after LT (9.7 days; 95% CI, 4.6–48.8) relative to lower grades. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed greater likelihood of discharge to a rehabilitation center among recipients with ACLF-1 (odds ratio [OR], 1.79; 95% CI, 1.09–4.54), ACLF-2 (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.12–5.01), and ACLF-3 (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.40–5.73). Development of bacterial infection after LT also predicted LOS (20.9 days; 95% CI, 6.1–38.5) and 30-day readmissions (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.17–2.25). Conclusions: Patients with ACLF at LT, particularly ACLF-3, have greater post-transplant healthcare resource utilization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • 30-Day Readmission
  • Bacterial Infection
  • Length of Stay
  • Organ Failure
  • Renal Failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology


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