Patterns of Implicit and Explicit Stereotypes III: Long-Term Change in Gender Stereotypes

Tessa E.S. Charlesworth*, Mahzarin R. Banaji

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Gender stereotypes are widely shared “collective representations” that link gender groups (e.g., male/female) with roles or attributes (e.g., career/family, science/arts). Such collective stereotypes, especially implicit stereotypes, are assumed to be so deeply embedded in society that they are resistant to change. Yet over the past several decades, shifts in real-world gender roles suggest the possibility that gender stereotypes may also have changed alongside such shifts. The current project tests the patterns of recent gender stereotype change using a decade (2007–2018) of continuously collected data from 1.4 million implicit and explicit tests of gender stereotypes (male-science/female-arts, male-career/female-family). Time series analyses revealed that, over just 10 years, both implicit and explicit male-science/female-arts and male-career/female-family stereotypes have shifted toward neutrality, weakening by 13%–19%. Furthermore, these trends were observed across nearly all demographic groups and in all geographic regions of the United States and several other countries, indicating worldwide shifts in collective implicit and explicit gender stereotypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14-26
Number of pages13
JournalSocial Psychological and Personality Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • gender stereotypes
  • implicit social cognition
  • stereotype change
  • time series analyses (ARIMA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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