Pauling's rules for oxide surfaces

Tassie K. Andersen*, Dillon D. Fong, Laurence D. Marks

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Determination of surface structures currently requires careful measurement and computationally expensive methods since, unlike bulk crystals, guiding principles for generating surface structural hypotheses are frequently lacking. Herein, we discuss the applicability of Pauling's rules as a set of guidelines for surface structures. The wealth of solved reconstructions on SrTiO3 (100), (110), and (111) are considered, as well as nanostructures on these surfaces and a few other ABO3 oxide materials. These rules are found to explain atomic arrangements for reconstructions and thin films just as they apply to bulk oxide materials. Using this data and Pauling's rules, the fundamental structural units of reconstructions and their arrangement are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)213-232
Number of pages20
JournalSurface Science Reports
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2018


  • Oxide surfaces
  • Perovskite oxides
  • Reconstructions
  • Strontium titanate
  • Surface reconstructions
  • Surface structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Surfaces and Interfaces


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