Purpose: We investigated the cytotoxicity and mechanisms of cell death of the broad-spectrum histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor PCI-24781, alone and combined with bortezomib in Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines and primary lymphoproliferative (CLL/SLL) cells. Experimental Design: Apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle analysis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry, whereas caspase activation was determined by Western blot. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-related mRNAs were quantified by reverse transcription-PCR, NF-κB-related proteins by Western blotting, and NF-κB DNA-binding activity by electromobility shift assay. Finally, gene expression profiling was analyzed. Results: PCI-24781 induced concentration-dependent apoptosis that was associated with prominent G0/G1 arrest, decreased S-phase, increased p21 protein, and increased ROS in Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. Dose-dependent apoptosis with PCI-24781was also seenamong primary CLL/SLL cells. PCI-24781-induced apoptosis was shown to be ROS- and caspase-dependent. Combined PCI-24781/bortezomib treatment resulted in strong synergistic apoptosis in all non-Hodgkin lymphoma lines (combination indices, 0.19-0.6) andwas additive inHodgkin lymphomaand primary CLL/SLL cells. Further, PCI-24781/bortezomib resulted in increased caspase cleavage, mitochondrial depolarization, and histone acetylation compared with either agent alone. Gene expression profiling showed that PCI-24781 alone significantly down-regulated several antioxidant genes, proteasome components, and NF-κB pathway genes, effects that were enhanced further with bortezomib. Reverse transcription-PCR confirmed down-regulation of NF-κB1 (p105), c-Myc, and IκB-kinase subunits,where NF-κB DNA binding activity was decreased. Conclusion: We show that PCI-24781 results in increased ROS and NF-κB inhibition, leading to caspase-dependent apoptosis. We also show that bortezomib is synergistic with PCI-24781. This combination or PCI-24781 alone has potential therapeutic value in lymphoma.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research