Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumor Diagnosis, Complications, and Emergencies

Alicia Lenzen*, Rebecca Garcia-Sosa, Reema L Habiby, Arthur J DiPatri, Natasha Pillay Smiley

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Central nervous system tumors are the most common solid malignancy in childhood and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. With an average of 13 new patients being diagnosed daily with a central nervous system tumor, many of these patients will present to the emergency department for evaluation and management. Furthermore, many children experience complications and/or adverse effects directly from the tumor itself, from multimodality treatment (ie, surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy), and/or as long-term survivors. Oncologic emergencies include increased intracranial pressure, spinal cord compression, seizures/status epilepticus, central diabetes insipidus, and adrenal insufficiency. Evaluation and management by emergency medicine practitioners are critically important for these patients in all phases of their diagnosis and treatment and can contribute significantly to an improved prognosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-161
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine
Volume19
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018

Fingerprint

Central Nervous System Neoplasms
Emergencies
Pediatrics
Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus
Neoplasms
Adrenal Insufficiency
Child Mortality
Spinal Cord Compression
Status Epilepticus
Emergency Medicine
Intracranial Pressure
Survivors
Hospital Emergency Service
Seizures
Radiotherapy
Drug Therapy
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • adrenal insufficiency
  • central nervous system tumor
  • chemotherapy
  • diabetes insipidus
  • intracranial pressure
  • long-term survivor
  • radiation therapy
  • seizures
  • transfusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Emergency Medicine

Cite this

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title = "Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumor Diagnosis, Complications, and Emergencies",
abstract = "Central nervous system tumors are the most common solid malignancy in childhood and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. With an average of 13 new patients being diagnosed daily with a central nervous system tumor, many of these patients will present to the emergency department for evaluation and management. Furthermore, many children experience complications and/or adverse effects directly from the tumor itself, from multimodality treatment (ie, surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy), and/or as long-term survivors. Oncologic emergencies include increased intracranial pressure, spinal cord compression, seizures/status epilepticus, central diabetes insipidus, and adrenal insufficiency. Evaluation and management by emergency medicine practitioners are critically important for these patients in all phases of their diagnosis and treatment and can contribute significantly to an improved prognosis.",
keywords = "adrenal insufficiency, central nervous system tumor, chemotherapy, diabetes insipidus, intracranial pressure, long-term survivor, radiation therapy, seizures, transfusion",
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AU - Pillay Smiley, Natasha

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N2 - Central nervous system tumors are the most common solid malignancy in childhood and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. With an average of 13 new patients being diagnosed daily with a central nervous system tumor, many of these patients will present to the emergency department for evaluation and management. Furthermore, many children experience complications and/or adverse effects directly from the tumor itself, from multimodality treatment (ie, surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy), and/or as long-term survivors. Oncologic emergencies include increased intracranial pressure, spinal cord compression, seizures/status epilepticus, central diabetes insipidus, and adrenal insufficiency. Evaluation and management by emergency medicine practitioners are critically important for these patients in all phases of their diagnosis and treatment and can contribute significantly to an improved prognosis.

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KW - adrenal insufficiency

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