Pediatric formulas: Categories, composition, and considerations

Corie M. Klepper, Joseph Moore, Megan E. Gabel, Sarah E. Fleet, Rachel Kassel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Formulas, liquid nutrition, may be consumed orally or via a feeding tube to provide partial or complete nutrition that a given individual could not obtain using natural food stuffs in their native form. A wide range of commercially available formulas exist, which may be used as sole-source nutrition or in conjunction with other foods. Physicians and dietitians must understand the nature of and indications for specific formulas to treat diseases, provide complete nutrition to patients, and avoid harm. Products vary in macronutrient and micronutrient content and calorie concentration among many other factors. They are formulated specifically for patients of specific ages, correlating to nutritional needs and medical diagnoses. Additionally, formula availability, insurance coverage, mode of consumption, physiologic tolerance, and caregiver preference influence formula selection. Caregivers may also make their own pediatric formulas. We review commercial and homemade pediatric formulas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)302-317
Number of pages16
JournalNutrition in Clinical Practice
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • enteral
  • enteral formulas
  • formula
  • medical food
  • nutrition support
  • tube feeding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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