Background: Although shown to be safe in infancy, robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RALP) for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is most commonly performed in older children and adolescents. Objective: This study examined a contemporary RALP experience at a single tertiary pediatric center and compared outcomes in infants aged ≤1 year with an older cohort. Methods and design: All RALP procedures were entered into an Institutional Review Board-approved data registry from 2012 to 2016. Patients were retrospectively grouped according to age. The primary outcome was success rate. Secondary outcomes included complications and length of hospital stay. Failure was defined as the need for secondary surgical intervention for UPJO or worsening urinary tract dilation on imaging. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Mann–Whitney U testing was used for comparison. Results: A total of 138 patients underwent RALP during 2012–2016, with a median age of 6 years (IQR 1, 13.25) and a male:female ratio of approximately 2:1. Of these, 34 (24.6%) were aged ≤1 year. Of all patients, 60 (43.5%) presented with a history of prenatal hydronephrosis, and 32% had a crossing vessel causing obstruction. An indwelling stent was placed in antegrade fashion in 71% of cases, and 18% had a percutaneously placed externalized stent. There were six (4%) failures requiring reoperation. Multivariate and comparative analysis demonstrated that the infant cohort utilized less morphine equivalents and more often had a percutaneous stent placed compared to the older cohort. Of the complications that occurred, 60% were minor (Clavien grades 1 and 2) and 40% were Clavien grade 3 in the infant cohort, and 70.1% and 29.9% in the older cohort, respectively. No studied criteria predicted failure in either cohort. Conclusion: This study presented one of the largest contemporary series of consecutive pediatric RALPs, and showed an overall success rate of 96%. There were no significant differences in length of hospital stay, and complications or failure rates in infants compared to older children. This study substantiated the ongoing trend towards the adaptation of robotic-assisted surgery for the entire pediatric patient population.
- Infant robotic surgery
- Minimally invasive surgery
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health