People believe they have more free will than others

Emily Pronin*, Matthew B. Kugler

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    41 Scopus citations


    Four experiments identify a tendency for people to believe that their own lives are more guided by the tenets of free will than are the lives of their peers. These tenets involve the a priori unpredictability of personal action, the presence of multiple possible paths in a person's future, and the causal power of one's personal desires and intentions in guiding one's actions. In experiment 1, participants viewed their own pasts and futures as less predictable a priori than those of their peers. In experiments 2 and 3, participants thought there were more possible paths (whether good or bad) in their own futures than their peers' futures. In experiment 4, participants viewed their own future behavior, compared with that of their peers, as uniquely driven by intentions and desires (rather than personality, random features of the situation, or history). Implications for the classic actor-observer bias, for debates about free will, and for perceptions of personal responsibility are discussed.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)22469-22474
    Number of pages6
    JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Issue number52
    StatePublished - Dec 28 2010


    • Agency
    • Attribution
    • Introspection
    • Psychology
    • Self-other

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General

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