Most patients receiving chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR-T) for aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) do not experience a durable remission. Several novel agents are approved to treat relapsed, refractory aggressive B-NHL; however, it remains unclear how to sequence these therapies pre– and post–CAR-T. We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis to describe peri–CAR-T practice patterns and survival predictors for patients receiving CD19-directed CAR-T. Patients (n = 514) from 13 centers treated with CAR-T for B-NHL between 2015-2021 were included in the study. Survival curves were constructed using Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine the impact of the variables on survival outcomes. For all patients receiving CAR-T, a greater number of lines of therapy pre-CAR-T apheresis and bridging therapy were predictive of inferior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The median PFS and OS from the time of CAR-T cell infusion were 7.6 and 25.6 months, respectively. From the time of progression post–CAR-T, the median OS was 5.5 months. The median PFS of treatments administered in the first-line post–CAR-T failure was 2.8 months. Patients with refractory disease on day 30 had inferior OS and were less likely to receive subsequent treatment(s) than other patients with CAR-T failure. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for selected patients at any time following CAR-T failure led to durable responses in over half of patients at 1 year. These data provide a benchmark for future clinical trials in patients with post–CAR-T cell progression, which remains an unmet clinical need.
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