Permanence of grouted sands exposed to various water chemistries

John M. Siwula*, Raymond J. Krizek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Evaluated herein is the permanence (as reflected by changes in permeability) of grouted sand specimens subjected to waters of various chemistry under gradients of approximately ten. The test specimens were composed of Ottawa 20-30 sand injected with one of four different grouts (a microfine cement, an acrylate, and two types of sodium silicate grout). The acrylate grout showed no signs of deterioration with time under both high and low pH waters. The silicate-based sodium aluminate grout exhibited very low permeability under both high and low pH waters. The cement grout exhibited quite large permeability values when subjected to both low and high sulfate waters; this is attributable to the segregation of cement particles to form preferential flow paths. The silicate-based ethyl acetate-formamide grout produced specimens with a wide range of permeability values, depending on the pH and hardness of the permeant (both of which interfere with the silica solubility). Water with a high pH and/or low hardness resulted in a higher coefficient of permeability, and the grout was elutriated from the specimens with short curing times.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1403-1419
Number of pages17
JournalGeotechnical Special Publication
Issue number30
StatePublished - Jan 1 1992
EventProceedings of the 1992 ASCE Specialty Conference on Grouting, Soil Improvement and Geosynthetics - New Orleans, LA, USA
Duration: Feb 25 1992Feb 28 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture
  • Building and Construction
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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