Permanent cardiac pacing in children: Choosing the optimal pacing site: A multicenter study

Jan Janoušek*, Irene E. Van Geldorp, Sylvia Krupičková, Eric Rosenthal, Kelly Nugent, Maren Tomaske, Andreas Früh, Jan Elders, Anita Hiippala, Gunter Kerst, Roman A. Gebauer, Peter Kubuš, Patrick Frias, Fulvio Gabbarini, Sally Ann Clur, Bert Nagel, Javier Ganame, John Papagiannis, Jan Marek, Svjetlana Tisma-DupanovicSabrina Tsao, Jan Hendrik Nürnberg, Christopher Wren, Mark Friedberg, Maxime De Guillebon, Julia Volaufova, Frits W. Prinzen, Tammo Delhaas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

140 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND-: We evaluated the effects of the site of ventricular pacing on left ventricular (LV) synchrony and function in children requiring permanent pacing. METHODS AND RESULTS-: One hundred seventy-eight children (aged <18 years) from 21 centers with atrioventricular block and a structurally normal heart undergoing permanent pacing were studied cross-sectionally. Median age at evaluation was 11.2 (interquartile range, 6.3-15.0) years. Median pacing duration was 5.4 (interquartile range, 3.1-8.8) years. Pacing sites were the free wall of the right ventricular (RV) outflow tract (n=8), lateral RV (n=44), RV apex (n=61), RV septum (n=29), LV apex (n=12), LV midlateral wall (n=17), and LV base (n=7). LV synchrony, pump function, and contraction efficiency were significantly affected by pacing site and were superior in children paced at the LV apex/LV midlateral wall. LV dyssynchrony correlated inversely with LV ejection fraction (R=0.80, P=0.031). Pacing from the RV outflow tract/lateral RV predicted significantly decreased LV function (LV ejection fraction <45%; odds ratio, 10.72; confidence interval, 2.07-55.60; P=0.005), whereas LV apex/LV midlateral wall pacing was associated with preserved LV function (LV ejection fraction ≥55%; odds ratio, 8.26; confidence interval, 1.46-47.62; P=0.018). Presence of maternal autoantibodies, gender, age at implantation, duration of pacing, DDD mode, and QRS duration had no significant impact on LV ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS-: The site of ventricular pacing has a major impact on LV mechanical synchrony, efficiency, and pump function in children who require lifelong pacing. Of the sites studied, LV apex/LV midlateral wall pacing has the greatest potential to prevent pacing-induced reduction of cardiac pump function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)613-623
Number of pages11
Issue number5
StatePublished - Feb 5 2013


  • Heart block
  • heart failure
  • pacemakers
  • pacing
  • pediatrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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