Permeability measurements and modeling of topology-optimized metallic 3-D woven lattices

Longyu Zhao*, Seunghyun Ha, Keith W. Sharp, Andrew B. Geltmacher, Richard W. Fonda, Alex H. Kinsey, Yong Zhang, Stephen M. Ryan, Dinc Erdeniz, David C. Dunand, Kevin J. Hemker, James K. Guest, Timothy P. Weihs

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Topology optimization was combined with a 3-D weaving technique to design and fabricate structures with optimized combinations of fluid permeability and mechanical stiffness. Two different microarchitected structures are considered: one is a "standard" weave in which all wires were included, while the other is termed an "optimized" weave as specific wires were removed to maximize the permeability of the resulting porous materials with only a limited reduction in stiffness. Permeability was measured and predicted for both structures that were 3-D woven with either Cu or Ni-20Cr wires. The as-woven wires in the Cu lattices were bonded at contact points using solder or braze while the Ni-20Cr wires were bonded at contact points using pack aluminization. Permeability was measured under laminar flow conditions in all three normal directions for unbonded and bonded samples and in the optimized structure it was found to increase between 200% and 600%, depending on direction, over the standard structures. Permeability was also predicted using finite-element modeling with as-fabricated wires positions that were identified with optical microscopy or X-ray tomography; the measurements and predictions show good agreement. Lastly, the normalized permeability values significantly exceed those found for stochastic, metallic foams and other periodic structures with a material volume fraction of over 30%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)326-336
Number of pages11
JournalActa Materialia
StatePublished - Dec 2014


  • 3-D woven lattices
  • Finite-element modeling
  • Permeability
  • Topology optimization
  • X-ray tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys


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