Personality and Adult Development: Looking Beyond the OCEAN

Karen Hooker*, Dan P. McAdams

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


We presented a newly emerging model, called the six-foci model of personality (Hooker & McAdams, 2003), to encourage researchers to look beyond the familiar five-factor model of personality encompassing the big five traits of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (OCEAN). Reactions to our six-foci model provided additional issues to consider. We respond to the commentaries by Mrozcek and Spiro (2003), McCrae (2003), and Wagerman, Wright, and Funder (2003), and we note areas of commonality as well as points where we hold differing views. In general, all commentaries agreed that going beyond the trait framework is necessary to move the field of personality and aging forward.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)P311-P312
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


Dive into the research topics of 'Personality and Adult Development: Looking Beyond the OCEAN'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this