Background: Heart failure (HF) is associated with a hypercoagulable state that predisposes to thromboembolism and anti-coagulation may improve clinical outcomes. The oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, has not been studied in patients with HF. We hypothesized that rivaroxaban would also reduce biomarkers of hypercoagulability in patients with HF. Methods: This study consisted of two cohorts: Cohort 1, open-label, actively controlled with enoxaparin 40 mg once daily, included 8 patients with acute decompensated HF; Cohort 2, double-blind and placebo-controlled, included 18 patients with stable, severe New York Heart Association Class III/IV HF. Results: The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of rivaroxaban were similar across both cohorts. Biomarker assessments were performed in Cohort 2; prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2) mean concentration decreased by 2.7 ng/ml over 7 days with rivaroxaban, and increased by 11.6 ng/ml with placebo, an absolute difference of 14.3 ng/ml (p = 0.0009). A non-significant reduction in rate of increase of D-dimer (DD) and thrombinanti-thrombin complex (TAT) levels with rivaroxaban was observed over 7 days (p = 0.31 and p = 0.77, respectively). Conclusion: Rivaroxaban has similar PK/PD in patients with either acute or chronic HF. In vivo, hypercoagulability biomarkers appear to increase over time. Rivaroxaban reversed this trend for F1.2, and may reduce the rate of increase of DD and TAT in patients with stable, severe HF.
- cardiac output
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine