Pharmacology of Estrogens

Randall B. Barnes, Seth G. Levrant

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

7 Scopus citations


Estrogens for hormone therapy may be separated by chemical composition or by route of administration. Natural estrogens include estradiol, estrone, estriol, and their conjugates as well as conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs). Synthetic estrogens include ethinyl estradiol, mestranol, quinestrol, diethylstilbestrol, and raloxifene. Parenteral routes of administration include injection, transvaginal, transdermal patches, subcutaneous pellets, intranasal, and percutaneous gel administration. No matter the type of estrogen or the route of administration, large intraindividual and interindividual variations of serum concentrations occur. Estrogen replacement is beneficial for symptomatic relief of hot flushes and genitourinary symptoms and for prevention of osteoporosis. The lowest dosage that relieves symptoms and is effective in preventing osteoporosis should be used. There is limited information on the interaction of diseases and drugs with estrogen in postmenopausal women receiving replacement therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationTreatment of the Postmenopausal Woman
Subtitle of host publicationBasic and Clinical Aspects, Third Edition
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9780123694430
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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