Phenotypes and endotypes of rhinitis and their impact on management: A PRACTALL report

Nikolaos G. Papadopoulos*, J. A. Bernstein, P. Demoly, M. Dykewicz, W. Fokkens, P. W. Hellings, A. T. Peters, C. Rondon, A. Togias, L. S. Cox

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

94 Scopus citations

Abstract

Rhinitis is an umbrella term that encompasses many different subtypes, several of which still elude complete characterization. The concept of phenotyping, being the definition of disease subtypes on the basis of clinical presentation, has been well established in the last decade. Classification of rhinitis entities on the basis of phenotypes has facilitated their characterization and has helped practicing clinicians to efficiently approach rhinitis patients. Recently, the concept of endotypes, that is, the definition of disease subtypes on the basis of underlying pathophysiology, has emerged. Phenotypes/endotypes are dynamic, overlapping, and may evolve into one another, thus rendering clear-cut definitions difficult. Nevertheless, a phenotype-/endotype-based classification approach could lead toward the application of stratified and personalized medicine in the rhinitis field. In this PRACTALL document, rhinitis phenotypes and endotypes are described, and rhinitis diagnosis and management approaches focusing on those phenotypes/endotypes are presented and discussed. We emphasize the concept of control-based management, which transcends all rhinitis subtypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)474-494
Number of pages21
JournalAllergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Volume70
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2015

Keywords

  • classification
  • endotypes
  • phenotypes
  • rhinitis
  • treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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