Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have a higher incidence of rheumatologic disorders. To delineate this clinical association, we investigated the phenotypic features of patients with CVID affected by these conditions. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 870 pediatric and adult patients with CVID included in the United States Immunodeficiency Network (USIDNET) registry. Outcomes included clinical characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, rheumatologic diagnosis, and comorbidities), infectious history and basic immunophenotype (serum immunoglobulin levels, CD19+ B cells, and CD4/CD8 ratio) in patients with CVID and rheumatologic disorders compared to those with non-inflammatory CVID. Demographic and clinical data were compared using chi-square, Fisher's exact or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests. Non-parametric tests, single and multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between CVID-associated rheumatologic disorders and basic immunophenotypic parameters (IgA, IgM, CD19+ B-cell counts, and CD4/CD8 ratios). Results: Physician-reported rheumatic diseases were present in 5.9% of patients with CVID (n = 51) included in the registry. Although CVID affects both sexes equally, and patients are of predominantly White-Caucasian ethnicity, there were more females (3.3:1 female to male ratio) and increased proportion of non-white patients in the rheumatologic disease group (p < 0.05). Specific disorders included: inflammatory arthritis (n = 18), Sjogren's syndrome (n = 11), SLE (n = 8), Raynaud's syndrome (n = 8), vasculitis (n = 9), MCTD (n = 3), and other (n = 5). In about one-third of patients, a rheumatologic condition was associated with an additional inflammatory complication or malignancy. In regards to the immunophenotype parameters compared (CD19+ B-cell counts, CD4/CD8 ratio, IgA, and IgM), no significant differences were demonstrated between the two groups. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the coexistence of primary antibody immunodeficiencies and systemic rheumatologic disorders, describe the spectrum of rheumatologic manifestations, and contrast differences in relevant demographic, clinical and immunophenotype parameters in the largest registry of CVID patients in the U.S. In spite of its limitations, our study details the intersection of systemic autoimmunity and CVID and provides valuable insights into these two groups of disorders. Further delineating the link between systemic autoimmunity and humoral immunodeficiencies can provide novel insights into the immune abnormalities underlying these related conditions.
- Primary Antibody Deficiency
- Rheumatologic Disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine