Phylogenomics of Brosimum (Moraceae) and allied genera, including a revised subgeneric system

Elliot M. Gardner*, Lauren Audi, Qian Zhang, Hervé Sauquet, Alexandre K. Monro, Nyree J.C. Zerega

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


We present a phylogenomic study of Brosimum (Moraceae) and the allied genera Trymatococcus and Helianthostylis, with near-complete taxon sampling. Distributed from Mexico and the Greater Antilles to the Amazon, this clade contains the underutilized crop ramón (bread nut) (Brosimum alicastrum) as well as other species valued for timber or medicinal uses. Target enrichment for 333 genes produced a well-resolved phylogenetic tree and showed that Trymatococcus and Helianthostylis are nested within Brosimum. We present a revised subgeneric classification of Brosimum (19 spp.) based on phylogenetic and morphological considerations, including the reduction of Trymatococcus and Helianthostylis to subgenera. The monophyletic subgenera can be diagnosed based on stipule, pistillode, and cotyledon synapomorphies. Divergence date estimates suggest a Miocene origin for Brosimum, and ancestral area reconstruction indicated that all four subgenera originated and initially diversified in Amazonia before dispersing into other parts of South and Central America.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)778-792
Number of pages15
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • Brosimeae
  • Brosimum
  • Dorstenieae
  • Helianthostylis
  • HybSeq
  • Maya nut
  • Moraceae
  • Trymatococcus
  • bread nut
  • phylogenetics
  • ramón
  • target enrichment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Plant Science


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