The mathematical models of the whole process are presented and described are the diffusion of oxygen, chloride ions, pore water and dissolved ferrous hydroxide through the concrete cover of reinforcement; the mass sinks of oxygen due to electrochemical cathodic reaction as well as the anodic chemical reaction producing red rust; the effect of chloride ion concentration; the effect of pH on the passivity of steel; the cathodic and anodic potentials depending on oxygen and ferrous ion concentrations according to Nernst equation; the electrical resistivity of concrete and the electric current passing through concrete; the polarization of electrodes due to changes in concentration of oxygen and ferrous ions; and the temperature dependence of these processes. Calculation of the mass of red rust is used to predict the tensile stresses in concrete due to volume expansion of rust, and the inherent cracking.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1978|
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