Physically informed Monte Carlo simulation of dual-wedge prism-based spectroscopic single-molecule localization microscopy

Wei Hong Yeo, Cheng Sun, Hao F. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Significance: The dual-wedge prism (DWP)-based spectroscopic single-molecule localization microscopy (sSMLM) system offers improved localization precision and adjustable spectral or localization performance, but its nonlinear spectral dispersion presents a challenge. A systematic method can help understand the challenges and thereafter optimize the DWP system's performance by customizing the system parameters to maximize the spectral or localization performance for various molecular labels. Aim: We developed a Monte Carlo (MC)-based model that predicts the imaging output of the DWP-based sSMLM system given different system parameters. Approach: We assessed our MC model's localization and spectral precisions by comparing our simulation against theoretical equations and fluorescent microspheres. Furthermore, we simulated the DWP-based system using beamsplitters (BSs) with a reflectance (R):transmittance (T) of R50:T50 and R30:T70 and their tradeoffs. Results: Our MC simulation showed average deviations of 2.5 and 2.1 nm for localization and spectral precisions against theoretical equations and 2.3 and 1.0 nm against fluorescent microspheres. An R30:T70 BS improved the spectral precision by 8% but worsened the localization precision by 35% on average compared with an R50:T50 BS. Conclusions: The MC model accurately predicted the localization precision, spectral precision, spectral peaks, and spectral widths of fluorescent microspheres, as validated by experimental data. Our work enhances the theoretical understanding of DWP-based sSMLM for multiplexed imaging, enabling performance optimization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S11502
JournalJournal of Biomedical Optics
StatePublished - Jan 1 2024


  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • single-molecule localization microscopy
  • spectroscopy
  • super-resolution microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials


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