Physiological and behavioral effects of prior aversive stimulation (preshock) in the rat

Seymour Levine*, John Madden IV, Robert L. Conner, Joseph R. Moskal, D. Chris Anderson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


Physiological and behavioral measures were assessed in rats that had been previously exposed to unsignaled inescapable intense shock (preshock). Animals subjected to such prior aversive stimulation exhibited greater adrenocortical steroid response compared to nonpreshocked controls when subsequently tested in the open field. An increment in defecation was also observed, with ambulation and rearing behavior being markedly inhibited in the preshocked rat during these sessions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)467-471
Number of pages5
JournalPhysiology and Behavior
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1973


  • Activity
  • Defecation
  • Emotionality
  • Novelty
  • Open field
  • Plasma corticosterone
  • Preshock
  • Punishment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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