Previous studies have concluded that surgical exploration is unnecessary in genetic male subjects with nonpalpable testes who fail to respond to human chorionic gonadotropin. Lack of response suggested absent testicular tissue. We report on 2 patients thought to have anorchia because of lack of response to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation. Testes were found in both patients. Genetic and phenotypic male subjects with nonpalpable testes who fail to have increased testosterone after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation should undergo laparoscopy. If testicular structures are present at laparoscopy surgical exploration is indicated. Unresponsiveness to human chorionic gonadotropin may be evidence of nonexistent or dysfunctional Leydig cells rather than evidence of complete absence of testicular tissue.
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