Zdenek P. Bazant*, Sang Sik Kim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

183 Scopus citations


Incremental plasticity and fracturing (microcracking) material theory are combined to obtain a nonlinear triaxial constitutive relation that is incrementally linear. The theory combines the plastic stress decrements with the fracturing stress decrements, which reflect microcracking, and accounts for internal friction, pressure sensitivity, inelastic dilatancy due to microcracking, strain softening, degradation of elastic moduli due to microcracking, and the hydrostatic nonlinearity due to pore collapse. Failure envelopes are obtained from the constitutive law as a collection of the peak points of the stress strain response curves. Six scalar material functions are needed to fully define the monotonic response. One function, the dilatancy due to microcracking, is determined theoretically based on Budianski-O'Connell's calculation of the effective elastic contents of a randomly microcracked elastic material by the self consistent method for composites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)407-428
Number of pages22
JournalASCE J Eng Mech Div
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1979

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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