We have shown previously that endotoxin, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) are important in the pathogenesis of bowel injury, and that endotoxin and TNF induce PAF formation in bowel tissue. In the present study we investigated the effects of endotoxin and PAF on TNF gene expression. Adult rats were injected with endotoxin (2 mg/kg), PAF (1 μg/kg) or endotoxin plus PAF, and were killed after 30 min. Endotoxin had little systemic effect. PAF induced transient hypotension and mild bowel injury. Endotoxin plus PAF caused profound shock, severe haemoconcentration, leukopenia and intestinal necrosis. Sham-operated rats had barely detectable TNF mRNA in the liver or intestine. Endotoxin or PAF induced a marked increase in TNF mRNA, especially in the distal ileum and in the liver, but much less in the jejunum. Endotoxin plus PAF did not further increase TNF mRNA, probably due to development of tissue injury. Serum TNF levels in animals treated with endotoxin, PAF and endotoxin plus PAF were elevated. Endotoxin induces TNF gene expression probably via both PAF-dependent and PAF-independent pathways, since TNF mRNA formation was only partially blocked by PAF antagonist.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||5|
|State||Published - 1994|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy