pol Mutations conferring zidovudine and didanosine resistance with different effects in vitro yield multiply resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates in vivo

J. J. Eron, Y. K. Chow, A. M. Caliendo, J. Videler, K. M. Devore, T. P. Cooley, H. A. Liebman, J. C. Kaplan, M. S. Hirsch, R. T. D'Aquila*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

45 Scopus citations

Abstract

Specific mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pol gene that cause zidovudine (3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine; AZT) and didanosine (2',3'-dideoxyinosine; ddI) resistance were studied. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of nucleosides for cloned viruses containing these mutations were compared with the IC50s of the corresponding triphosphate analogs for mutant recombinant-expressed reverse transcriptases (RTs). Changes in ddATP inhibition of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity fully accounted for the ddI resistance of the virus caused by a Leu-74 → Val substitution in RT, including an augmentation by the AZT-selected substitutions Thr-215 → Tyr and Lys-219 → Gln in RT. In contrast, the AZT-selected substitutions studied did not cause as great a change in the IC50 of AZT-triphosphate (AZT-TP) for polymerase as they did in the IC50 of AZT for mutant virus. In addition, the mutation at codon 74 suppressed AZT resistance in the virus caused by the mutations at codons 215 and 219 but did not suppress the AZT-TP resistance of enzyme containing these same mutations in RT. The mutation at codon 74 was found in clinical isolates whether or not the patient had received AZT prior to starting ddI therapy. AZT resistance coexisted with ddI resistance following acquisition of Leu-74 → Val in three clinical isolates, indicating that the suppressive effect of Val-74 on the AZT resistance of the virus does not occur in all genetic contexts. When this suppression of AZT resistance was seen in the virus, Val- 74 did not appear to cause mutually exclusive changes in AZT-TP and ddATP binding to RT in vitro. The results of the in vitro experiments and characterization of clinical isolates suggest that there are differences in the functional effects of these AZT and ddI resistance mutations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1480-1487
Number of pages8
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume37
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 1993

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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