Polar signal averaging

G. W. Thomas, H. N. Bachman, E. E. Sigmund, V. F. Mitrović, E. S. Calder, W. P. Halperin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Signals suffering from phase noise, such as spin echoes from NMR experiments in a fluctuating magnetic field, can be underestimated by traditional signal averaging. Averaging in the polar rather than in the Cartesian domain can solve this problem. However, because of background noise, there is an inherent drawback in the polar averaging technique: polar averaging under conditions of a low initial signal to noise will cause these same signals to be overestimated. We studied this problem with both numerical simulations and experiments. The quantitative results allow not only an assessment of the applicability of polar averaging for a given experiment but also possible corrections of the overestimate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)359-364
Number of pages6
JournalConcepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A: Bridging Education and Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2002


  • NMR
  • Phase noise
  • Polar averaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Spectroscopy


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