Policy standpoint: Tools to include sex as a variable in biological research

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The sex of a person, animal, cell or enzyme is the most powerful variable in health and disease. Yet, even after years of advocacy, only recently has the importance of sex as a biological and experimental variable been addressed1-4. Indeed, the majority of biomedical research is conducted with male animals and cells, neglects to report which sexes were studied or fails to mention if any sex-differences were identified5-6. In addition to being an exclusionary practice, this unidimensional approach to biological processes may be a root cause of the concerns regarding rigour and reproducibility of scientific research7.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10-13
Number of pages4
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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