Polyclonal anti-D (Rh immune globulin [RhIg]) therapy has mitigated hemolytic disease of the newborn over the past half century, although breakthrough anti-D alloimmunization still occurs in some treated females. We hypothesized that antiviral responses may impact the efficacy of immunoprophylaxis therapy in a type 1 interferon (IFN)-dependent manner and tested this hypothesis in a murine model of KEL alloimmunization. Polyclonal anti-KEL immunoprophylaxis (KELIg) was administered to wild-type or knockout mice in the presence or absence of polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (poly[I:C]), followed by the transfusion of murine red blood cells (RBCs) expressing the human KEL glycoprotein. Anti-KEL alloimmunization, serum cytokines, and consumption of the transfused RBCs were evaluated longitudinally. In some experiments, recipients were treated with type 1 IFN (IFN-a/b). Recipient treatment with poly(I:C) led to breakthrough anti-KEL alloimmunization despite KELIg administration. Recipient CD41 T cells were not required for immunoprophylaxis efficacy at baseline, and modulation of the KEL glycoprotein antigen occurred to the same extent in the presence or absence of recipient inflammation. Under conditions where breakthrough anti-KEL alloimmunization occurred, KEL RBC consumption by inflammatory monocytes and serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 were significantly increased. Poly(I:C) or type I IFN administration was sufficient to cause breakthrough alloimmunization, with poly(I:C) inducing alloimmunization even in the absence of recipient type I IFN receptors. A better understanding of how recipient antiviral responses lead to breakthrough alloimmunization despite immunoprophylaxis may have translational relevance to instances of RhIg failure that occur in humans. (Blood. 2020;135(22):1983-1993).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology