The parental origin of the extra chromosome 21 was studied in 20 patients with trisomy 21-associated transient myeloproliferative syndrome (TMS) using chromosomal heteromorphisms as markers; this was combined with a study of DNA polymorphisms in 5 patients. Of these, 10 were shown to result from duplication of a parental chromosome 21, viz., maternal in 8 and paternal in 2. A patient with Down syndrome-associated TMS had a paracentric inversion in two of his three chromosomes 21 [47,XY,-21, +inv(21)(q11.2q22.13)mat, +inv(21)(q11.2 q22.13)mat). These findings support our hypothesis of "disomic homozygosity" of a mutant gene on chromosome 21 in 21-trisomic cells as being a mechanism responsible for the occurrence of TMS. The finding also suggests that the putative TMS gene locus is at either 21q11.2 or 21q22.13, assuming that the gene is interrupted at either site because of the inversion. The study of 5 TMS patients using DNA polymorphic markers detected a cross-over site on the duplicated chromosomes 21 between 21q11.2 (or q21.2) and 21q21.3 in one patient, and a site between 21q21.3 and q22.3 in another patient, evidence that confined the gene locus to the 21cen-q21.3 segment. These findings suggest that the putative TMS gene is located at 21q11.2. The extra chromosome 21 in the latter two TMS patients probably resulted from maternal second meiotic non-disjunction, in view of the presence of recombinant heterozygous segments on their duplicated chromosomes 21.
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